Cost-effectiveness of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Strategies for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase After Generic Entry of Imatinib in the United States.

TitleCost-effectiveness of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Treatment Strategies for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase After Generic Entry of Imatinib in the United States.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPadula WV, Larson RA, Dusetzina SB, Apperley JF, Hehlmann R, Baccarani M, Eigendorff E, Guilhot J, Guilhot F, Hehlmann R, Mahon F-X, Martinelli G, Mayer J, Müller MC, Niederwieser D, Saussele S, Schiffer CA, Silver RT, Simonsson B, Conti RM
JournalJ Natl Cancer Inst
Date Published2016 Jul
KeywordsAdult, Aged, Antineoplastic Agents, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Drugs, Generic, Female, Humans, Imatinib Mesylate, Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive, Male, Markov Chains, Middle Aged, Models, Econometric, Practice Patterns, Physicians', Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Quality-Adjusted Life Years, Survival Analysis, Treatment Outcome, United States

BACKGROUND: We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of treating incident chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) with generic imatinib when it becomes available in United States in 2016. In the year following generic entry, imatinib's price is expected to drop 70% to 90%. We hypothesized that initiating treatment with generic imatinib in these patients and then switching to the other tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), dasatinib or nilotinib, because of intolerance or lack of effectiveness ("imatinib-first") would be cost-effective compared with the current standard of care: "physicians' choice" of initiating treatment with any one of the three TKIs.

METHODS: We constructed Markov models to compare the five-year cost-effectiveness of imatinib-first vs physician's choice from a US commercial payer perspective, assuming 3% annual discounting ($US 2013). The models' clinical endpoint was five-year overall survival taken from a systematic review of clinical trial results. Per-person spending on incident CML-CP treatment overall care components was estimated using Truven's MarketScan claims data. The main outcome of the models was cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). We interpreted outcomes based on a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000/QALY. A panel of European LeukemiaNet experts oversaw the study's conduct.

RESULTS: Both strategies met the threshold. Imatinib-first ($277 401, 3.87 QALYs) offered patients a 0.10 decrement in QALYs at a savings of $88 343 over five years to payers compared with physician's choice ($365 744, 3.97 QALYs). The imatinib-first incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was approximately $883 730/QALY. The results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses.

CONCLUSION: When imatinib loses patent protection and its price declines, its use will be the cost-effective initial treatment strategy for CML-CP.

Alternate JournalJ. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PubMed ID26944912
PubMed Central IDPMC4948567
Grant ListK12 HD001441 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
UL1 TR001111 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States
K07-CA138906 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States
UL1TR001111 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States

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